Statement from DMV on Tesla Dealership in Virginia

The Commissioner is pleased that Tesla, the Virginia Automobile Dealers Association (VADA), and the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), through counsel, came to an agreement and avoided litigation regarding the operation of a Tesla dealership in Virginia. After the initial ruling, the parties to the hearing before DMV engaged in discussions and, after consideration of those discussions and additional information presented, the Commissioner could determine that Tesla may own a Tesla dealership in Northern Virginia. To operate as a dealer, Tesla must meet the statutory requirements applicable to dealers and obtain a license from the Motor Vehicle Dealer Board.

Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles – October 2, 2013


A Tesla charges at Science Museum of Virginia in Richmond


What are the key terms to know when discussing electric drive vehicles and their fueling infrastructure?

Question of the Month: What are the key terms to know when discussing electric drive vehicles and their fueling infrastructure?

Answer: It is important to know how to “talk the talk” when it comes to electric drive vehicles. Becoming familiar with the terms below will help you better understand these vehicles and the associated fueling (charging) infrastructure, so that you can ask the right questions and make informed decisions:

Vehicle Types

There are two main categories of electric drive vehicles:

1. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are powered by an internal combustion engine or other propulsion source that runs on conventional or alternative fuel, as well as an electric motor that uses energy stored in a battery. The battery is charged through regenerative braking and by the internal combustion engine, and is not plugged in to charge. Regenerative breaking is a technology by which energy normally lost during braking is captured by the electric motor and stored in the battery for extra power during acceleration. There are two different types of HEVs:

  • Mild hybrid: This type of HEV uses a battery and electric motor to help power the vehicle and can allow the engine to shut off when the vehicle stops (such as at traffic lights or in stop-and-go traffic). Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using electricity alone. Example: Chevrolet Malibu Eco
  • Full hybrid: This type of HEV generally has more powerful electric motors and larger batteries, which can drive the vehicle on just electric power for short distances and at low speeds. Example: Toyota Prius
  • HEVs can be designed in two different configurations:

  • Parallel: This configuration connects the engine and the electric motor to the wheels through mechanical coupling and allows both the electric motor and the engine to drive the wheels directly, either simultaneously or independently.
  • Series: In this configuration, only the electric motor drives the wheels. The internal combustion engine is used to generate electricity for the motor.
  • 2. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) refer to any on-road vehicle that can be charged through an external source of electricity. There are two different types of PEVs available:

  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV): Like HEVs, these vehicles are powered by an internal combustion engine that can run on conventional or alternative fuel, as well as an electric motor that uses energy stored in a battery. The difference is that these vehicles can be plugged into an electric power source to charge the battery. PHEVs can have a parallel or series design as well. Example: Chevy Volt
  • Electric vehicle, or all-electric vehicle (EV): These vehicles use a battery to store the electric energy that powers the motor. EV batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. EVs are sometimes referred to as battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Example: Nissan Leaf
  • Neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV): These vehicles are smaller and have less battery power than traditional EVs, and are often referred to as low-speed vehicles. NEVs are confined to roads with lower speed limits and states set specific regulations regarding their use.
  • Infrastructure Terminology

    Charging equipment for PEVs is known as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). Charging times vary based on how depleted the battery is, how much energy it holds, the type of battery, and the type of EVSE. Before exploring types of EVSE, it’s important to first understand the basics of electricity through the following terminology:

    Current type:

  • Alternating current (AC): Movement of electric current that reverses or alternates direction. AC is the form of current normally generated and delivered by an electric utility to homes and businesses.
  • Direct current (DC): Movement of electric current that continuously flows in the same direction. DC is the form of current normally delivered through batteries and is essential to charging vehicle batteries. As certain types of EVSE only provide AC (Level 1 and Level 2 described below), all PEVs are equipped with onboard equipment to convert the current to DC.
  • Amperage: The amount of electrical current, which can be thought of as the rate of flow. Amperage is measured in amperes, commonly referred to as amps.

    Voltage: The electric potential energy per unit charge, which can be thought of as the force or pressure that drives the electric current. Voltage is measured in volts (V).
    By multiplying amperage by voltage, you can find the unit of power, otherwise known as watts (W). There are 1000 watts in a kilowatt (kW). A typical residential three-prong outlet can supply 12 amps at 120V, or 1.44 kW based on the following equation:

    12 amps x 120V = 1440 W / 1000 = 1.44 kW

    PEV battery pack energy capacity is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). A kWh is a unit of energy that indicates the ability to provide a given amount of power for one hour. In theory, a 24 kWh battery pack would take 16.7 hours to charge using a standard 3-prong outlet based on the following equation:

    24 kWh / 1.44 kW = 16.7 hours

    EVSE Categories

    There are five different types of EVSE outlined in the table below.

    Additional information on electric drive vehicles, infrastructure, and batteries can be found on the Alternative Fuels Data Center Electricity website (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/electricity.html).


    Vehicle to Grid

    Electric vehicles have long been thought of as a mobile source for pulling electricity from the grid in off-peak time and sending it back when the power is most needed.  This Vehicle to Grid concept is

    Boulder Electric Vehicle has successfully demonstrated their Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) all electric trucks in three separate locations including Michigan, Colorado and California. The first full powered success transpired in Royal Oak, Michigan, on June 14, 2013.  With 60 kilowatts of power going in and coming out of the vehicles, Boulder EV reached a new milestone and became the first EV truck manufacturer in the world to successfully demonstrate V2G bi-directional charging. “This first success happened in the labs of our EVSE partner Coritech Services. When we finally saw the power going in and coming out at the maximum allowable amounts as per the J1772 DC Combo connector spec, we were all as giddy as school kids,” said Boulder EV CEO Carter Brown.



    Free Clean Cities Webinar

    Ever want to know where to find public alternative fuel stations in Virginia or the United States?

    A webinar on the Alternative Fueling Station Locator, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/locator/stations/, has been scheduled to take place on Thursday, September 19 beginning at 4pm ET. The webinar will last one hour and will include time at the end of the presentation for Q&A.

    Presenters will include Andrew Hudgins from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Alexis Schayowitz from ICF International.

    During this webinar, you will learn how to use the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) Fueling Station Locator, including how to search for a station, identify stations along a route, download data, and find current and historical station counts. The presentation will also cover the Fueling Station Locator data collection methodologies, review recent changes to the tool functionality, and point out new fuel-specific fields.

    Webinar login details are noted below:



    Participant passcode: 2112397


    URL: https://www.mymeetings.com/nc/join/

    Conference number: PW7152311

    Audience passcode: 2112397

    Participants can join the event directly at:



    Richmond Virginia Goes Electric Video

    Richmond VA Goes Electric was produced by Dominion in cooperation with Virginia Clean Cities and is a project of the Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative (REVi). The video tells the local story of Richmonders who are experiencing substantial benefits in efficiency, economics, dependability and driving experience associated with electric vehicles. With a variety of uses, electric vehicle provide an opportunity to be part of the solution by reducing dependence on foreign oil and helping the environment!


    Fast Charging for Electric Vehicles Presentations

    On Friday, June 28th, Virginia Clean Cities hosted an event at the Science Museum in Richmond to educate individuals about DC fast chargers. Pictures and presentations from the event are below.

    Alleyn Harned, Virginia Clean Cities
    Charles Tahara, Eaton
    Larry Butkovich, Fuji Electric
    Brendan Jones, Nissan


    Release of Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative EV Readiness Plan

    The Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative (REVi) Electric Vehicle Readiness Plan was released in March of 2013 following a period of review by project stakeholders.

    A partnership of organizations in the Richmond region established the REVi initiative with the goal of fostering full-scale EV adoption. Richmond is at the forefront of emerging transportation modes and technologies, and is particularly supportive of EVs. This is evident through REVi’s pursuit and award of the US Department of Energy Clean Cities’ Community Readiness and Planning for Plug-in Electric Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure project, which has funded the document. This community readiness and planning project is intended to facilitate the adoption of EVs and associated infrastructure in the Richmond region and to serve as an example for other communities. The resulting work has advanced planning for the Richmond region as an attractive and sustainable market for EVs, established the educational groundwork for EV adoption, and developed a regional strategic plan that identifies and fosters policies to expedite EV infrastructure implementation specific to the Richmond Region. This plan is a critical milestone in moving the Commonwealth one step closer to a balanced energy portfolio for transportation.

    The Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy was the prime award recipient, with Virginia Clean Cities serving as the award administrator and overall program manager. A nine-member Advisory Board focused on program goals while several working groups and technical advisory groups addressed plan development. The program started with over 50 organizations and increased that number substantially throughout the project. Stakeholder groups participated in forums to help conduct studies and analyses, as well as plan and implement project objectives. Localities represented in REVi include the Town of Ashland, the City of Richmond, and the counties of Charles City, Chesterfield, Goochland, Hanover, Henrico, New Kent and Powhatan, as defined by the Richmond Regional Planning District Commission. Other nearby localities also participated in project efforts.

    Adoption of EVs is becoming a reality in the throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia, which is well-positioned geographically and economically to participate in this emerging transportation technology. Embracing EV use in Virginia will assist efforts to reduce emissions, increase energy independence, and create jobs in the Commonwealth. Electricity represents a less expensive, cleaner, and locally generated energy source. Virginia’s economy is already benefiting from EV deployment. Local companies make batteries, battery components, motors, charging stations, and wireless charging technology. Companies in Virginia also design, manufacture and deploy electric vehicles, and convert vehicles to plug-in hybrids and battery electric vehicles. Virginia entities are researching vehicle conversions, assessing charging capacity, reviewing financial strategies, and considering roles in jump-starting vehicle adoption and infrastructure deployment to further benefit our local economy.

    Richmond is at the forefront of emerging transportation modes and technologies, and is particularly supportive of EVs. For example, Ford Motor Company selected Richmond as one of the nineteen US cities to launch its first electric car, the Focus Electric; and the area has seen many other EVs come to market since then. Dominion Virginia Power is piloting Time-of-Use rates to encourage off-peak EV charging. To view the full plan, click here.


    Clean Cities EV Quarterly Discussion Webinar

    Save the date for the upcoming Clean Cities EV Quarterly Discussion webinar, which has been scheduled for June 18th beginning at 3pm ET. Clean Cities coordinators will present details of their EV community readiness planning projects. They include Kim Tyrell from Denver Clean Cities, Christina Ficicchia from Empire Clean Cities, and Don Francis from Atlanta Clean Cities. Linda Bluestein from DOE will moderate and host the webinar. The webinar should last about an hour and a half. All are invited to attend.

    Webinar login details are as follows:

    Participant passcode: 5262808

    URL: https://www.mymeetings.com/nc/join/
    Conference number: PW2968499
    Audience passcode: 5262808

    Participants can join the event directly at:

    Please contact Andrew Hudgins at 303-275-4382 or andrew.hudgins@nrel.gov with questions.

    You DO NOT need to register for this event – simply follow the links above to join the call!


    Fan Letter – Richmond EV

    This incoming email from Hugh Joyce was so good we had to post:

    Friends -Check out this photo of my new Tesla model S sedan, delivered yesterday in Richmond.  www.teslamotors.com   This car is an all electric, 285 mile range, American Masterpiece.  I am convinced that this, made in American  car, with the: fit, finish, look, feel, and drivability of an Audi A8, Cadillac, Mercedes Benz, BMW 750i,  or Jag is a game changer for the car industry.  Read the rest of this entry »


    GreenTech Automotive All-Electric Sedan

    GreenTech Automotive Expands Product Line with
    All-Electric Sedan for North American Market


    Price Point Projected to be Under $25,000 with
    Range of Over 100 Miles


    GreenTech Automotive, an American manufacturer of all-electric vehicles will launch a five-passenger, all-electric sedan to be assembled in the United States. GreenTech currently manufacturers the all-electric two-passenger MyCar.

    GTA All-Electric Sedan

    GTA MyCar NEV

    The new EV sedan is the result of a new strategic partnership between GTA and JAC Motors, a leading Chinese OEM. The new sedan combines JAC’s award-winning vehicle platform with GTA’s advanced electric powertrain and battery management system. The sedan will feature a 19kWh battery with a range of over 100 miles on a single charge and a charge time of 6-8 hours. GTA will assemble the vehicles in its Horn Lake, Miss., facility for distribution in North America exclusively beginning in late-2013. After a pilot assembly of 2,000 vehicles, GTA plans to establish another assembly facility for the sedan and expects to create 200 additional jobs in the United States.

    “JAC is recognized worldwide for the caliber and quality of its manufacturing. GTA’s innovative electric powertrain is a perfect fit for JAC’s EV platform, which has won numerous national awards in China,” said Charles Wang, Chairman and CEO, GreenTech Automotive. “Our meetings clearly revealed that there was good synergy between the JAC platforms and our technology and both companies immediately understood that a strategic partnership is in each company’s best interest.”

    Executives from both companies began high-level strategic meetings in 2012, including multiple visits to each other’s assembly facilities and in-depth technical reviews and marketing planning discussions. The agreement was finalized in March and announced at the Shanghai International Automobile Industry Exhibition.

    “The GTA partnership is of great significance to JAC,” said Jing An, chairman and CEO, JAC. “GTA has quickly proven its adeptness with a proven advanced technology and expertise as an EV developer with a growing distribution network. We believe this partnership represents a win-win for both our companies.”

    “The five-passenger sedan is a natural complement to our two-passenger MyCar product line,” said Marianne McInerney, executive vice president, sales and marketing, GTA. “The MyCar, which offers consumers a fun, affordable driving experience, is already seeing strong response, achieving distribution agreements for the sale of more than 30,000 units over the next three years.

    The JAC-GTA partnership allows us to expand our product line-up with a sedan and allows us to offer the GTA technology with great amenities and room for five passengers while adhering to our philosophy of being price competitive.”

    If you have any additional questions regarding this offer, would like to visit our factory or need additional information on MyCar 2013 or the new GTA All-Electric Sedan, please contact Marianne.Mcinerney@wmgta.com.

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